Building Stone Trails

 
Index of building stones used in Birmingham city centre and further reading.

This index shows all the rock types mentioned in the three Birmingham Building Stone Trails with the buildings where they can be found. Additional reference information is also provided.

Arden Sandstone (Cathedral)
Jones, H., (2011), Strategic Stone Study: A Building Stone Atlas of Warwickshire., 18 pp. https://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Balmoral Granite (Symphony Hall, The Pavilions, House of Fraser)
Selonen, O., Ehlers, K., Luodes, H. & Karell, F., (2011), Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland., Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 83, 25–39.

Baltic Brown (Waterloo House, Brindley Place fountain, 43 Temple Row)
Müller, A., (2007), Rocks Explained 1: Rapakivi Granites., Geology Today, 23 (3), 114-120.

Bath Stone (15, 79-83 and 115 Colmore Row, Great Western Arcade)
King, A., (2011), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Avon., English Heritage., 25 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Bessbrook Granite (Victoria Square House)
Watson, J., (1911), British and foreign building stones; a descriptive catalogue of the specimens in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge., Cambridge University Press., 483 pp.

Bird’s Eye Marble (New Oxford House, Burnaby Memorial)
Thomas, I. A., (2005), Hopton Wood Stone – England’s premier decorative stone., in: England’s Heritage in Stone: Proceedings of a conference at Tempest Anderson Hall, York, (15-17 March 2005), English Stone Forum. 90-105.

Black Pearl Basalt (St Martin’s Square)
Li, L. M., Sun, M., Xing, F-M., Zhao, G-C., M., Zhou, M- F, Wong, J. & Chen, R., (2009), Two late Mesozoic volcanic events in Fujian Province: constraints on the tectonic evolution of southeastern China, International Geology Review, 51 (3), 216-251.

Blaubrun Granite (CBRE Temple Row, Bullring Mall)
Zandstra, J. G., (1988) Noordelijke kristallijne Gidsgesteenten, Verlag E.J.Brill: http://www.skan-kristallin.de/index.htm

Blue Pearl Larvikite (Allied Irish Bank, Colmore Gate to 8 Colmore Row)
Heldal, T., Meyer, G. B. & Dahl, R., (2014), Global stone heritage: Larvikite, Norway., in: Pereira, D., Marker, B.R., Kramar, S., Cooper, B. J. & Schouenborg, B. E. (Eds.) Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 407, 14 pp.

Candeeiros Limestone (Wetherspoon’s, Broad Street)
Gonçalves, P. A., Mendonça Filho, J. G., Mendonça, J. O. & Flores, D., (2014), The presence of zooclasts and zoomorphs in the carbonate Candeeiros formation (Arruda sub-basin, Lusitanian Basin, Portugal): paleoenvironmental evidence., Comunicações Geológicas, 101, 439-442.

Carboniferous Sandstone (Statue of Edward VII, Celebrity Restaurant, One Brindleyplace, Brindleyplace)

Carrara Marble (Burnaby Memorial, WH Smith, Rotunda)
Price, M. T., (2007), Decorative Stone: The Complete Sourcebook. Thames and Hudson, 288 pp.

Cefn Stone (Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery & Council House)
Watson, J., (1911), British and foreign building stones; a descriptive catalogue of the specimens in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge., Cambridge University Press., 483 pp.

Cinza Rajado (Bullring Mall)
No references known.

Coastal Red Granite (Chamberlain Memorial Fountain)
Zandstra, J. G., (1988) Noordelijke kristallijne Gidsgesteenten, Verlag E.J.Brill: http://www.skan-kristallin.de/index.htm

Connemara Marble (122-124 Colmore Row)
Price, M. T., (2007), Decorative Stone: The Complete Sourcebook. Thames and Hudson, 288 pp.

Cornish Granite (Hall of Memory, Baskerville House, First Municipal Savings Bank, Allied Irish Bank)
Bristow, C. M., (2013), The geology of the building and decorative stones of Cornwall, UK., in: Cassar, J., Winter, M. G., Marker, B. R., Walton, N. R. G., Entwisle, D. C., Bromhead, E. N. & Smith, J. W. N. (eds) Stone in Historic Buildings: Characterization and Performance. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 391 & supplementary Data.

Coxbench Stone (Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery & Council House, 85-89 Colmore Row)
Watson, J., (1911), British and foreign building stones; a descriptive catalogue of the specimens in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge., Cambridge University Press., 483 pp.

Cumbrian Green Slate (Symphony Hall plaque)
Lott, G. & Parry, S., (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Cumbria & the Lake District., English Heritage., 17 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Dakota Mahogany (Waterloo House)
Price, M. T., (2007), Decorative Stone: The Complete Sourcebook. Thames and Hudson, 288 pp.

Dalbeattie Granite (110 Colmore Row)
Stephens, W. E., (2007), Site: Lotus Quarries to Drungans Burns., in: Chapter 8: Late Silurian and Devonian granitic intrusions of Scotland., Volume 17: Caledonian Igneous Rocks of Great Britain., Geological Conservation Review., 8 pp. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-2731

Dancing Cairns Granite (84 Colmore Row)
Kneller, B. C. & Aftalion, M., (1987), The isotopic and structural age of the Aberdeen Granite., Journal of the Geological Society, 144, 717-721.

Darley Dale Stone (Birmingham Museum, Art Gallery & Council House, The Guardians, 85-89 Colmore Row, Cathedral)
Thomas, I., (2011), Strategic Stone Study: a building stone atlas of Derbyshire & the Peak National Park., English Heritage., 19 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

De Lank Granite (Oozells Square)
Bristow, C. M., (2013), The geology of the building and decorative stones of Cornwall, UK., in: Cassar, J., Winter, M. G., Marker, B. R., Walton, N. R. G., Entwisle, D. C., Bromhead, E. N. & Smith, J. W. N. (eds) Stone in Historic Buildings: Characterization and Performance. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 391 & supplementary Data.

Derbydene (Ryman’s, Temple Street)
Thomas, I. A., (2005), Hopton Wood Stone – England’s premier decorative stone., in: England’s Heritage in Stone: Proceedings of a conference at Tempest Anderson Hall, York, 15-17 March (2005)., English Stone Forum. 90-105.

Devon Marble (Birmingham Museum, Art Gallery & Council House interiors)
Walkden, G., (2015a), Devonshire Marbles: their geology, history and uses. Volume 1. Understanding the marbles. Geologists’ Association Guide no. 72., The Geologists’ Association, London.,1-232. Walkden, G., (2015b), Devonshire Marbles: their geology, history and uses. Volume 2. Recognising the marbles. Geologists’ Association Guide no. 72., The Geologists’ Association, London.

Dunhouse Stone (Cathedral)
King, A., (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of County Durham, Tyne & Wear, and Cleveland., English Heritage., 20 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Emerald Pearl Larvikite (Brindley Place fountain)
Heldal, T., Meyer, G. B. & Dahl, R., (2014), Global stone heritage: Larvikite, Norway., in: Pereira, D., Marker, BR., Kramar, S., Cooper, B. J. & Schouenborg, B. E. (eds) Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 407, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP407.14, 14 pp.

Fancy Beach Whitbed (CBRE Temple Row)
Albion Stone: http://www.albionstone.com

Frosterley Marble (122-124 Colmore Row)
Johnson, G. A. L., (1958), Biotromes in the Namurian Great Limestone of Northern England., Palaeontology, 1 (2), 147-157.

Giallo Cecilia, Giallo Dorata (115 & 125 Colmore Row)
Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., De Campos, C. D., Noce, C., Silva, L. C., Novo, T., Roncato, J., Medeiros, S., Castañeda, C., Queiroga, G., Dantas, E., Dussin, I. & Alkmim, (2011), Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian granitic magmatism in the Araçuaí orogen (Brazil), the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province and related mineral resources., in: F., Sial, A. N., Bettencourt, J. S., De Campos, C. P. & Ferreira, V. P. (Eds.) Granite-Related Ore Deposits, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 350, 25–51

Grinshill Stone (St Martin in the Bull Ring)
Jenkinson, A., (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Shropshire., English Heritage. 29 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Hauteville Limestone (St Martin in the Bull Ring)
Perrier, R., Les roches calcaires de France, Mines et Carrières, Les Techniques, vol. 75, La Pierre en France, 54-69.

Juparana Gneiss (The Minories)
No references known.

Jura Marble (Grand Central Mall)
Keupp, H., Koch, R., Schweigart, G. & Viohl, G., (2007), Geological history of the Southern Franconian Alb – the area of the Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone., Neues Jarbuch fur Geologie & Paläontologie Abhandlungen., 245, 3–21.

Kobra Granite (New Street Station)
Cui, J., Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Jahn, B_M., Xu, X. & Ma, L., (2013), Zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny., Journal of Asian Earth Sciences., 62, 237–252. Nero Marquina

Marina Pearl Larvikite (98 Colmore Row)
Heldal, T., Meyer, G. B. & Dahl, R., (2014), Global stone heritage: Larvikite, Norway., in: Pereira, D., Marker, B. R., Kramar, S., Cooper, B. J. & Schouenborg, B. E. (eds) Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 407, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP407.14, 14 pp.

Markfieldite (Oozells Square & Brunswick Street cobblestones)
Horton, A. & Harald, J., (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Leicestershire. English Heritage., 33 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html
Carney, J., (2005), Old Cliffe Hill and Whitwick quarries, Charnwood Forest., Mercian Geologist, 16(2), 138- 141.

Mountsorrel Granodiorite (Oozells Square cobblestones, Brunswick Street cobblestones)
Horton, A. & Harald, J., (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Leicestershire. English Heritage., 33. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Nero Marquina (Grand Central Mall)
Perrier, R., (1992), Les roches ornamentales d’Espagne., Mines et Carrieres., 74, 147-158.

Nero Zimbabwe (Oozells Square)
Price, M. T., (2007), Decorative Stone: The Complete Sourcebook. Thames and Hudson, p. 235.

Orissa Blue (Bullring Mall)
Kar, R., (2001), Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India: Structural and petrochemical evidences attesting to their relict nature., Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Earth & Planetary Sciences)., 110 (4), 337- 350.

Penmon Marble (Town Hall, Monument to Heap & Badger)
Thomas, I. A., (2014), Quarrying Industry in Wales: a history | Y diwydiant Chwareli yng Nghymru: hanes., The National Stone Centre., 224 pp.

Peterhead Granite (110 Colmore Row, Crimea Memorial, Celebrity Restaurant)
Stephenson, D. & Gould, D., (1995), British Regional Geology: The Grampian Highlands. 4th Edition. British Geological Survey, HMSO., 124-143.

Porkkala Granite (The Square Peg, The Minories)
Heinonen, A. P., Andersen, T. & Rämö, O. T., (2010), Re- evaluation of Rapakivi Petrogenesis: Source Constraints from the Hf Isotope Composition of Zircon in the Rapakivi Granites and Associated Mafic Rocks of Southern Finland., Journal of Petrology, 51 (8), 1687- 1709.

Portland Stone (Chamberlain Memorial Fountain, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery & Council House, New Oxford House, 84 Colmore Row, Burnaby Obelisk, Hall of Memory, Baskerville Memorial, Baskerville House, The Golden Boys, First Municipal Savings Bank, Brindleyplace Central Square steps)
Hackman, G., (2014), Stone to build London: Portland’s legacy., Folly Books Ltd., Monkton Farleigh., 311 pp.

Rosa Tramonto (The Wesleyan)
Rosa Tramonto Granite: Cat. 017606, Dudley Museums; http://geologymatters.org.uk/collections/getrecord/DMUSE_017606/

Rosso Porriño (The Square Peg)
Villaseca, C., Bellido, F., Pérez-Soba, C. & Billström, K., 2009, Multiple crustal sources for post-tectonic I-type granites in the Hercynian Iberian Belt., Mineralogy & Petrology, 96, 197-211.

Rosso Tigrato (Bullring Mall)
No references known.

Rowley Rag (Oozells Square cobblestones)
Cutler, A., (2010), From the depths of the Earth: Discovering the Ancient Past of the Rowley Hills., Black Country Geological Society; http://bcgs.info/pub/local-geology/geological-leaflets-and-guides/rowley-hills- leaflet/

Royal White Granite (New Street Station)
Cui, J., Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Jahn, B_M., Xu, X. & Ma, L., (2013), Zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny., Journal of Asian Earth Sciences., 62, 237–252.

Sardinian Grey Granite (Symphony Hall, Allied Irish Bank)
Puccini, A., Xhixha, G., Cuccuro, S., Oggiano, G., Kaçeli-Xhixha, M., Mantovani, F., Alvarez, C. R. & Casini, L., (2014), Radiological characterization of granitoid outcrops and dimension stones of the Variscan Corsica- Sardinia Batholith., Environ Earth Sci., 71, 393–405.

Silver Grey Granite (Holloway Circus Pagoda)
Cui, J., Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Jahn, B_M., Xu, X. & Ma, L., (2013), Zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny., Journal of Asian Earth Sciences., 62, 237–252.

Shap Granite (Grand Hotel/Gusto Restaurant)
Lott, G. & Parry, S., (2013), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of Cumbria & the Lake District., English Heritage., 17 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

Srikakulam Blue (Bullring Mall)
Yamamoto, T., Tani, Y., Miyashita, Y., Rao, A. T. & Yoshida, M., (1998), Migmatite and Granulites In the Patapatnam-Tekkali area, Eastern Ghats, India., Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 41, 123- 142.

Tivoli Travertine (43 Temple Row)
Facenna, C., Soligno, M., Billi, A., De Filippis, L., Funicello, R., Rossetti, C. & Tuccimei, P., (2008), Late Pleistocene depositional cycles of the Lapis Tiburtinus travertine (Tivoli, Central Italy): Possible influence of climate and fault activity., Global and Planetary Change 63, 299–308.

Trefor Granite (Oozells Square cobblestones)
Bendall, C., (2004), Trefor Granite., Welsh Stone Forum Newsletter, 2, p. 2.

Vanga Granite (Bullring Mall)
Johansson, Å., Bogdanova, S. & Cecys, A., (2006), A revised geochronology for the Blekinge Province, southern Sweden., GFF, Vol. 128 (4), 287–302.

Verde Candeias (Wetherspoon’s, Broad Street)
Oliveira, A. H. & Carneiro, M. A., (2001), Campo Belo Metamorphic Complex: Tectonic Evolution of an Archean sialic crust of the southern São Francisco Craton in Minas Gerais (Brazil)., An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 73 (3), 397-415.

Verdi Alpi (New Oxford House)
Price, M. T., (2007), Decorative Stone: The Complete Sourcebook. Thames and Hudson, 288 pp.

Watts Cliffe Sandstone (Victoria Square)
Blockstone: http://www.blockstone.co.uk/pdfs/Wattscliffe%20e-brochure.pdf

Welsh Slate (Inner Spirit sculpture)
Borradaile, G. J., MacKenzie, A. & Jensen, E., (1991), A study of colour-changes in purple-green slate by petrological and rock-magnetic methods., Tectonophysics, 200, 157-172.
Howells, M. F. & Smith, M., (1997), The geology of the country around Snowdon. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 119 (England and Wales)., HMSO for the British Geological Survey., 104 pp.

Welsh Slate (Symphony Hall plaque)
Howells, M. F. & Smith, M., (1997), The geology of the country around Snowdon. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 119 (England and Wales)., HMSO for the British Geological Survey., 104 pp.

Whinstone (Oozells Square & Brunswick Street cobblestones)
Powell, J., (2012), Strategic Stone Study: A Building Stone Atlas of North Yorkshire East and York., English Heritage., 20 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

White Hollington Stone (Cathedral)
Stimpson, P. & Floyd, P., (2012), Strategic Stone Study: A Building Stone Atlas of Staffordshire, Stoke-on- Trent, Walsall & Wolverhampton., 16 pp. https://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html

White Mansfield Stone (Cathedral)
Lott, G. K. & Cooper, A. H., (2005), Field guide to the building limestones of the Upper Permian Cadeby formation (Magnesian limestone) of Yorkshire., in: England’s Heritage in Stone: Proceedings of a conference at Tempest Anderson Hall, York, (15-17 March 2005), English Stone Forum. 80-89.

Yana Limestone (Bullring Mall)
Garcia, R., Moreno-Bedmar, J. A., Bover-Arnal, T., Company, M., Salas, R., Latil, J-L., Martin-Martin, J. D., Gomez-Rivas, E., Bulot, L. G., Delanoy, G., Martinez, R. & Grauges, A., (2014), Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian- Albian) ammonite biostratigraphy in the Maestrat Basin (E Spain)., Journal of Iberian Geology 40 (1), 99- 112.

York Stone (Brindleyplace, Brunswick Street)
Lott, G. (2012), Strategic stone study: a building stone atlas of West & South Yorkshire., English Heritage., 25 pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/buildingStones/StrategicStoneStudy/EH_atlases.html